পণয সাংবািদক-হলুদ সাংবািদকতা

মাতর কেয়ক মাস আেগর ঘটনা।  কলকাতা তথা ভারেতর সংবাদ মাধযেমর সেঈ ‘িচটফানড’ অথবা ‘পনিজ সকীম’ বা মািন মারেকিটংেয়র ওতেপরাতভােব জিড়ত থাকার খবর সারা িবেশব আেলাচনার িবষয়বসতু হেয়েছ। ‘েপড জারনািলসম’ অথবা সংবাদমাধযেম কােলা টাকার অনুপরেবশ বরতমান ভারেতর সংবাদ মাধযেমর সবাধীনতায় হসতেখণষপ করেছ কী? িবতরক শুরু হেয়েছ। পরথেম আমরা েদেখ েনব ভারতীয় সাংবািদকতার সংিখণষপত ইিতহাস। ১৮৫৩ সােল মধুসূদন রায় নােম জৈনক ধনী বযািকত সাপতািহক Hindu Patriot পরকাশ কেরন। িবরটীশ ঔপিনেবেশর িবরুেদধ িসপাহী িবদেরাহ এবং নীল িবদেরােহর খবর েপটিরয়েটর িনরভীক সংবািদকতা সকেলর পরশংসা েপেয়িছল। এবং েসই যুেগর সরবেশরষঠ সংবাদপতেরর সবীকূিত িদেয়িছল। েপটিরয়েটর মতামত এতই গুরুতবপূরণ হেয় উেঠিছল েয সবয়ং বড়লাট েলাক পািঠেয় েপটিরয়েটর পরিতিট সংখযা পরথম সংগরহ করেতন। পাশাপািশ পরায় একেশা িতিরশ চিললশ বছর আেগ ‘সমবাদ েকাউমুদী’ সাংবািদকতার লখণষ েজেনিছল ‘েলাকিহত সাধনা’। ইংেরিজেত েযটা বলা হেয়িছল, ”A record of public events and transactions noted down as the occur.’‘  ১৯৪৭ সােল ভারত সবাধীনতা পরািপতর পের আমােদর েদেশ সবাধীন সংবাদ পতেরর সংখযা উততেরাততর বাড়েত থােক। জনম মূতযুর পিরসংখযান না েভেব গত কেয়ক দশেক সরবভারতীয় সংবাদমাধযমগুিল আরিথকভােব অেনক েবশী শিকতশালী হেয়েছ। পিরচালনা বা মযােনজেমেনটর েখণষতেরও মুনিসয়ানা আনেত েপেরেছ। তুলনামূলকভােব েপশাদািরতব এেসেছ। লখণষ কর যায় ১৯৯৮ সােলর পর ‘ৈবদযুিতন িনউজ িমিডয়া’ বা িটিভ চযােনেলর বাবসায় ভারতসরকার  েবসরকািরকরণ কের েদওয়ার পের ভারেত আঞচিলক ‘সংবাদমাধযম’ গেড় েতালার েঝাঁক পরবলভােব েদখা েদয়।  নতুন শতাবদীর পরথম দশেক সংবাদ মাধযম ‘Breaking News‘   এর আতমীয়তায়  চমকােনা খবেরর সমারেহ ‘ডরিয়ংরুম’, ‘ডাইিনংরুম’, ‘েবডরুম’ দখল কের িনেয়েছ। এর সেঈ েকানও িবেরাধ েনই। িবেরাধ থাকার কথাও নয়। আধুিনক পরযুিকত সভযতােক হাত ধের অতযাধুিনক সভযতা েচনায়।

একিট তথয েথেক জানা যায় িবেশবর ১৯২ িট েদেশর ১১৭ িট েদেশ গণতানিরক বযবসথা রেয়েছ। গণতনেরর িবিভনন চিরতর থােক। বহুদলীয় গণতনরেতই েবশী আসথা এমনটা পরচিলত ধারণা। আবার িদবদলীয়, একদলীয় গণতানিরক বযবসথাও িবেশব রেয়েছ। িবেশবর ১১৭ িট গণতানিরক েদেশর মেধয আনুমািনক মাতর ৬৫ েথেক ৭০ িট েদেশ সবাধীন সংবাদ মাধযম রেয়েছ। যিদও েদশ নােম গণতানিরক হেলও আেমিরকা, ইউেরােপর িকছু েদশ, অসেটরিলয়া, ভারত সহ মুিষটেময় কেয়কিট েদশ সংবাদ মাধযেমর সবাধীনতায় িবশবাস কের। এই মানদেনড েদখেল ভারেত গণতনেরর যত িবকাশ হেয়েছ সংবাদ মাধযম ততই িনেজেদরেক আরও মজবুত কেরেছ। ভারেত সংবাদ মাধযম েযেহেতু সংিবধােনর ‘চতুরথ সতমভব’ েসই কারেণ আমােদর েদেশ সংবাদ মাধযম অেনক েবশী শিকতশালী। িমিডয়া ইনডাসটরীর একেচিটয়া মািলকানা যােদর হােত আেছ তাঁরা পরভূত খণষমতা রােখন। ইেলকটরিনক িমিডয়া এবং িপরনট িমিডয়া েয সব েগাষঠী সবয়ংসপমূরণভােব িনেজেদর বযবসথাপনায় চালােত পারেছ েসইসব েগাষঠীর পরভাব সূদূর পরসারী হেত বাধয। এইসব েগাষঠী েদেশর আরথ-সামািজক এবং আরথ-রাজৈনিতক েখতরেক অনায়ােস িনয়নতরণ করেত চাইেছ। িকছু িকছু েখণষতের সফলও হেয়েছ।  গত শতাবদীর েশষ দশক পরযনত এই পরভাব িকছুটা ‘কােলােক কােলা সাদােক সাদা’ বলার মত সামািজক দািয়তব পালন করেত েচেয়েছ। উেললখ করা যায় ‘িবহার েপরস িবল ১৯৮২’, চালু হওয়ার পর সমগর ভারত জুেড় িবরাট িবেখণষাভ সমােবশ হেয়িছল। ওই িবেলর গুরুেতবর কথ মেন েরেখই ‘এিডটরস িগলড’- এর পেখণষ পরখণষাত সাংবািদক (পের এনিডএ সরকােরর মনতরী) অরুণ েশাউির তৎকালীন িবহােরর মুখযমনতরী জগননাথ িমশেরর একিট একানত সাখণষাৎকার িনেয়িছেলন। উেললিখণষত সাখণষাৎকারিট েনওয়ার পের অরুণ েশাউির ‘এিডটটরস িগেলডর’ কােছ একিট িরেপারট জমা িদেয়িছেলন। পুেরা সাখণষাৎকারিট পের ‘ইিনডয়া টু-েড’ পতিরকায় ৩১ আগষট, ১৯৮২ সংখযায় পরকাশ করা হয়। এই অিভঙগতা ভারতীয় সংবাদ মাধযেমর দািয়েতবর কথা মেন কিরেয় েদয়। পরাসিঙগক হেব ভারত সবাধীন হওয়ার পর পরধানমনতরী পিণডত জওহরলাল েনহরু বেলিছেলন, ”আিম সমপূরণরূেপ সবধীন সংবাদপতরেকই পছনদ কির। এটাও জািন েয অবাধ সবধীনতার ঝুিঁক অেনক, কারণ পরিত মূহূরেত অথবা েয েকানও মূহূরেত সবাধীনতার অপবযাবহার হেতই পাের। এটা জানা সেতবও অবদিমত অথবা িনয়নিতিরত সংবাদ মাধযমেক আিম মানেত পারব না।”

পিণডত েনহরুর দূরদরিশতা আমরা একিবংশ শতেকর পরথম দশেকই ভয়াবহভােব েপলাম। ইেলকটরিনক িমিডয়ার রমরমা বযবসা এক দশক চলেত না চলেতই সংবাদ মাধযেমর এই ভয়াবহ ছিব আমােদর পরতযখণষ করেত হল। ২০১০ সােল ‘েপরস কাউিনসল অফ ইিনডয়ার’র সটযাটুটির বিড একিট সমীখণষার পর েকানও সংসথার নাম উেললাখ না কের জানায়, েদেশর িকছু িবখযাত সংবাদপতর েগাষঠী অরেথর িবিনমেয় সংবাদ পিরেবশন করেছ। ‘THE NEW YORK TIMES‘ এপিরল ২১, ২০১৩ েত িলখেছ, ” The proliferation of news media outlets, combined with concerns about the quality of reporters, has resulted in a great demand for top journalism school graduates. India has long had well-known graduate programs in this field, notably at the Asian College of Journalism in Chennai, the Indian Institute of Mass Communications in New Delhi, the Indian Institute of Journalism & New Media in Bangalore and the Xavier Institute of Communications in Mumbai. But new journalism schools have emerged in the past five years, including the World Media Academy, the Express Institute of Media Studies and the Delhi School of Communications, all in New Delhi, and Journalism Mentor in Mumbai. One problem that has come up in recent years is “paid news,” in which the media are compensated for favorable coverage. A 2010 study by the Press Council of India, a statutory body, noted, without naming names, that some of the country’s biggest newspapers and TV stations practiced paid coverage. The report called corruption in the industry “pervasive, structured and highly organized.” “The quality of journalism programs is hugely questionable in India,” said Shishir Joshi, a veteran journalist and one of two founders of Journalism Mentor, a small institute. “There’s a huge mismatch between what is taught and what is practiced.” Mr. Joshi started Journalism Mentor after leaving his job as the editorial director of a Mumbai newspaper, when it considered the idea of paid content in its entertainment coverage. “Journalism education has to go beyond skills alone,” said Aloke Thakore, the other co-founder of Journalism Mentor. “There should be a substantive understanding of the Indian scenario. Our program addresses a multiplicity of needs.” Siddhartha Dubey, the dean at the World Media Academy in New Delhi, said it was founded when the International Center for Journalists and the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation, both based in the United States, saw an opportunity to teach multimedia journalism. “India was chosen because of its vibrant and free press and the enormous energy in the nation’s media scene which clamors for good training,” Mr. Dubey said in an e-mail. India is the only country in which the Knight Foundation has financed a start-up journalism school. Mr. Dubey described the W.M.A. as an “experiment.” Sixty students have graduated from the academy, which is in its third year of operation. This summer, after financing from the Knight Foundation runs out, it will be an independent organization run by local Indian partners. The Express Institute of Media Studies, which was started by the Express Group, an Indian newspaper company, began in 2009 and is run under its auspices in New Delhi. “What is journalism is changing every day,” Shailaja Bajpai, the dean of the Express Institute, said in a telephone interview. “We felt, ‘Shouldn’t we have a vision?’ We felt a need to revisit essential core values of impartiality, objectivity.” The students, who are mostly 20 to 25 years old, are taught by working journalists from the Express Group and receive a graduate degree in journalism at the end of a year. “This is like a pilot project, a lab,” said N.P. Singh, a company director who oversees the institute. The school had received offers from state governments to start similar programs, but Mr. Singh, speaking in a telephone interview, said he was not convinced that it was a “scalable” idea in areas outside of Delhi, where there might not be the same concentration of quality faculty and newsmakers. Journalism Mentor, which opened three years ago, offers various options. It has held a dozen workshops for citizen journalists across India who wish to learn about police and press laws, media ethics and consumer rights. They also conduct training for midcareer professional journalists. The longest program is a 14-month training course for more traditional journalism students. While most graduates have found jobs, the school has had a hard time attracting new students. So far, 22 students have graduated over three years. This year, five students enrolled but only three remain. Journalism Mentor can grant diplomas, but not degrees. It works with Martin Luther Christian University in Shillong, India, which will accept Journalism Mentor credits from students who wish to pursue a postgraduate diploma or master’s in journalism. Mr. Thakore, who received a master’s degree in journalism from the University of Kansas and a doctorate in mass communications from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, helped design much of the curriculum; it combines practical training with courses on Indian history, sociology, law and ethics. “It’s not a run-of-the-mill syllabus,” said M.N. Parth, 21, who hopes to be a sports journalist. “We are now going to the northeast for conflict reporting,” he said, referring to a volatile Indian region.Another student, Ifat Gazia, 21, is from Kashmir, and hopes to be a documentary filmmaker. “What I am learning here, I wouldn’t learn elsewhere,” she said. Jyoti Shinoli, 21, who attends on a full scholarship, prefers to interact in Hindi and Marathi, the local language in Mumbai. Her goal is to work at a local-language newspaper in that city. Students who cannot afford to pay tuition — 200,000 Indian rupees, or about $3,770 — can do so after they find a job. According to Mr. Joshi, starting salaries for graduates are about 20,000 rupees per month. The school also provides scholarships. The two founders say they do not draw a salary and finance themselves through a publishing house, Font & Pixel, while 70 percent of the school’s 1,000 books are donated. “It’s not an easy thing we are doing,” Mr. Thakore said. “We want to ensure that this place becomes one where journalism excellence is imparted and better excellence is practiced, which is actually important for democracy.”

জুলাই ২৫, ২০১৩ েত ‘THE WALL STREET JOURNAL’-- India Real Time এ িলখেছ, ‘India Media Buries paid news Report’….” A major new report on the phenomenon of paid news in India’s media is, well, hardly making big news. The report, submitted to Parliament last month by the Standing Committee on Information Technology, is pretty racy stuff. It details how newspapers, television channels and radio stations allegedly take money for positive news coverage. It relies on previous reports by regulatory bodies and fresh testimony from a wide range of media representatives, regulators and government officials. The report, which points out that self-regulation by India’s media has failed to stop the practice of paid news, has some eye-catching recommendations. It suggests a more-powerful regulator and stiffer penalties, including criminal charges possibly leading to imprisonment, for those who accept payment for news. And it lambasts the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting for “dithering” by failing to tackle the issue. “The rise of ‘Paid News’,” the report says, “has undermined the essence of a democratic process.” But the document, submitted to the Lok Sabha on May 6, generated little media coverage (Here’s one of the few reports.) The committee report, noting the issue of paid news has been a feature of the media landscape since the 2009 national election, said it was “astonishing that a large section of the media is completely silent on this malpractice.” Ravindra Dhariwal, chief executive of Bennett Coleman & Co., which owns The Times of India, India’s largest circulation English daily, said the committee report overstates the problem. “The bulk of the media just doesn’t go near paid news,” Mr. Dhariwal said in an interview. “To say that everyone is tainted is wrong.” Bennett Coleman is among the few media companies mentioned by name in the report. The committee cites a portion of an investigation by the Press Council of India, officially handed to the government in 2010, into alleged instances of paid news during the 2009 elections. The quoted portion names Bennett Coleman as a pioneer of the private-treaty agreement, an arrangement by which Indian media firms accept an equity stake in an advertiser’s company in lieu of payment for ad space. The committee report found this practice, initially meant to pay for marketing, is used by companies to ensure “favorable coverage.” The report did not specify which media firms engage in this practice. Mr. Dhariwal denied Bennettt Coleman allowed its relationships with around 600 private-treaty agreement partners to influence news coverage. “A lot of our private-treaty clients get upset with us” for not doing so, he said. The Press Council of India, a statutory body that regulates India’s media, said in the 2010 report that its guidelines stated that news should be clearly demarcated from advertisements. The report, though, lamented the council’s lack of power to punish media companies that ignored those guidelines. It recommended legislative changes to make the council’s decisions binding. Paid news, it added, should be punishable by law. The latest committee report reiterated the need for a more powerful regulator and hit out at the government for ignoring the council’s recommendations. It found the current policy of “warning/admonishing/censuring” newspapers was insufficient and said the government should consider legal changes to allow fines, revocation of licenses and even criminal charges. The report also raised concerns about India’s lack of restrictions on how large a media company can grow. The government should look at rules to avoid the development of monopolistic practices, it said. A spokesman for the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting declined to comment. An official at the ministry said the government was hoping to formulate a response by August. “This is the first time the ministry is handling such a report,” the official said. “These issues are sensitive.”Reaching a solution will not be easy, as the U.K.’s experience has shown. There, efforts to set up a powerful media regulator have gotten bogged down in a debate over free speech. The parliamentary committee acknowledged obstacles. For one, it’s hard to prove paid news when the financial transactions that underlie them are often “clandestine,” the report found. The issue, though, doesn’t appear to be going away. The council found that 61 candidates admitted to paying for news coverage during Gujarat state elections in December. With national polls due in 2014, the issue is sure to come into the spotlight again, however dimmed.

–R. Jai Krishna contributed to this post.

FIRST POST জুন ১৮, ২০১৩ েত িলখেছ, ‘Why Parl  committee’s paid news recommendations won’t work.”After much debate over curbing ‘paid news’ in the Indian media, a new Parliamentary committee in its report on how to end the menace may has made some strong suggestions that expose the industry to a potential minefield. The Parliamentary Standing Committee in its extremely detailed report has laid the blame for the current situation regarding paid news in the Indian media squarely on the shoulders of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, which it says has failed to take any action to curb the menace. “The Committee expects a concerted, comprehensive and swift action from the Ministry on this crucial matter without any further delay, in any case before the onset of the next General Elections to prevent resurfacing of the hydra head of ‘Paid News’,” the committee noted. In its observations on the functioning of the ministry, the committee said it would await specific action taken by the government within six months. The main grouse that the committee has is the lack of a regulatory body, that too a statutory one that can look into violations of guidelines by print and electronic media outlets in order to take ‘strong action’  If a new statutory  body is being created the committee has recommended that the existing Press Council of India be wound up, but if the Ministry is averse to creating a new body, the committee has sought that the PCI be given more powers to handle violations of paid news guidelines and a new body be created to monitor electronic news outlets. However, there’s a catch. The committee wants media outlet owners and interested parties not to be a part of the proposed regulatory body in any way, a provision which opens it up to potential misuse. Terming the existence of self-regulatory bodies as mere ‘eyewash’, the parliamentary committee has said that despite the provisions to tackle the issue, ”the existing self regulatory bodies have abysmally failed to invoke the provisions and take appropriate deterrent action.” For a model for how to regulate the media, the committee also has said the ministry needs to look no further than the Leveson commission’s report, which wasn’t viewed with great happiness by the media in the UK either. The report also recommends that election laws should be strengthened further to curb paid news are rather interesting observations regarding the cause for the existence of paid news as well in its report. The committee has recommended the clear definition of what constitutes a ‘paid news’ article, asked for organisations to remedy the declining independence of journalists and sought a curb on private treaties’ which result in media and private companies cross-holding stakes. As for the government arm-twisting the media through advertisements, the committee has called for greater transparency with the ministry putting up the data on its own website. However, it has also called for greater transparency from media houses including making them disclose income from advertisements. It also wants media houses to be clear in disclosing which news stories are sponsored and wants even the government to educate people about paid news articles.of the recommendations of the Parliamentary Standing Committee don’t go beyond getting lip service from the industry and the ministry. There are recommendations like giving more teeth to the Election Commission and other organisational reforms within the media could make a difference, but the creation of a powerful statutory body to regulate the media is one that doesn’t augur well for the fourth estate of democracy . It won’t be surprising if a lot of the recommendations of the Parliamentary Standing Committee don’t go beyond getting lip service from the industry and the ministry. There are recommendations like giving more teeth to the Election Commission and other organisational reforms within the media could make a difference, but the creation of a powerful statutory body to regulate the media is one that doesn’t augur well for the fourth estate of democracy . Artiticles and has sought that the Election Commission be allowed to take more action against the candidates and media houses found guilty. And regarding the cross holding of media houses the committee has recommended that I&B ministry and Telecom Regulatory Authority of India consider this as a high priority and take action to curb monopolies from being formed. Unfortunately as a Firstpost article had pointed out merely painting all media houses with one brush doesn’t really solve the problem. e rather interesting observations regarding the cause for the existence of paid news as well in its report. The committee has recommended the clear definition of what constitutes a ‘paid news’ article, asked for organisations to remedy the declining independence of journalists and sought a curb on private treaties’ which result in media and private companies cross-holding stakes. As for the government arm-twisting the media through advertisements, the committee has called for greater transparency with the ministry putting up the data on its own website. However, it has also called for greater transparency from media houses including making them disclose income from advertisements. It also wants media houses to be clear in disclosing which news stories are sponsored and wants even the government to educate people about paid news articles. It won’t be surprising if a lot of the recommendations of the Parliamentary Standing Committee don’t go beyond getting lip service from the industry and the ministry. There are recommendations like giving more teeth to the Election Commission and other organisational reforms within the media could make a difference, but the creation of a powerful statutory body to regulate the media is one that doesn’t augur well for the fourth estate of democracy.”

েলাকসভা সিচবালয় সূতের জানা েগেছ, েকনদরীয় তথয পরযুিকত মনতরেকর ২০১২-২০১৩ সােল গিঠত ‘সটযািনডং কিমিট’ তথয ও সমপরচার মনতরেকর ‘েপড িনউজ’ সংকরানত ৪৭ তম িরেপারটিট (েম, ২০১৩) ৬ েম েলাকসভায় েপশ কেরেছ। রাজযসভায় িরেপারটিট পেরর িদন অরথাৎ ৭ েম, ২০১৩ জমা (Laid) পেড়। আনুমািনক ১১৪ পাতার িরেপারেট সারা েদেশর সংবাদ মাধযেম িকভােব ‘েপড িনউেজর’ রমরমা হেয়েছ েস িবষেয়  িবসতািরতভােব উেললখ করা হেয়েছ। েকনদরীয় সরকার কী িসদধানত েনয় েস জনয ভারতীয় নাগিরকেদর অেপখণষা করেত হেব। ভারেতর সমপরচার আইন এবং ভিবষযত সমপরচার িবষেয় ২০০৭ সােলর ৭ এবং ৮ এপিরল কলকাতার ‘েপরস কলােব’ ( Press Club, Kolkata) দুিদন বযািপ একিট েসিমনােরর আেয়াজন করা হেয়িছল। িমিডয়া ইনফরেমশন এবং কিমউিনেকশন েসনটার অফ ইিনডয়া’, ‘েসনটার ফর িমিডয়া িরসারচ এবং েডভলপেমনট সটািডস, কলকাতা’র েযাউথ উেদযােগ আেলচানাসভািট আেয়াজন করা হয়। পসতািবত খসড়া ‘Broadcasting Services Regulation Bill, 2006′ এর (৫) নমবর কলেম বলা হেচছ, ‘Central Government to exercise certain powers in public interest’—”The central Government may at any time, if it appears necessary or expedient  to do so in public interest, in respect of any broadcasting service, which is considered prejudicial to friendly relations with a foreign country, public order, communal harmony or security of the state, direct the licensing Authority to suspend or revoke it’s license or direct the service or transmit in it’s broadcasting service such announcements in such manner as may be considered necessary, and the service provider shall immediately comply with all or any such directions.” আধুিনক িবেশবর ইিতহাস েথেক আমরা জানেত পাির, গণতনতর যত িবকিশত হেয়েছ শাসন বাবসথার পরেয়াজেন সংবাদ মাধযমেক ততটাই বড় দািয়তব বা ভূিমকা িনেত হেয়েছ। আেমিরকার পরাকতন েপরিসেডনট টমাস েজফারসন বেলিছেলন, ”আমার সামেন েবেছ েনওয়ার জনয যিদ এমন দুিট িবষয় েদওয়া হয় েযমন (১) সংবাদপতর ছাড়া শাসনবযবসথা চালােত হেব। (২) শাসনবযবসথা ছাড়া সংবাদপতর চালােত হেব। আিম িদবতীয়িটর জনয িসদধানত েনব।” েপরিসেডনট টমাস েজফারসেনর শাসেনর সময়কাল িছল ১৮০১ সাল েথেক ১৮০৯ সাল পরযনত।

আেলাচনার উপােনত এেস আমরা ‘েপড িনউেজর’ সেঙগ সমেঝাতা না করেল কী হেত পাের তার একিট উদাহরণ সমপরিত একিট বংলা ছিবেত েপেয়িছ। অিনরুদধ রায় েচাউধুরীর ‘অনতহীন’ ছিবেত সাংবািদেকর চিরতের অিভনয় কেরিছেলন বিলউেডর রািধকা আেপত। উচচপদসথ পুিলশ অিফসার রাহুল বসুর সেঙগ েসাসাল িমিডয়ায় পিরচয় হয় রািধকার। তবুও সৎ করতমযিনষঠ রািধকার মূতযু হয় দুরনীিত িনেয় খবর করার জনয। গিতশীল িবেশব েসাসাল িমিডয়াএকিট  অতযনত শিকতশালী এবং জনিপরয় মাধযম হেয় উঠেছ। এই মাধযমেক বযবহার কেরই  উইিকিলকস এবং েসনােডন  জীবেনর ঝুিঁক িনেয় েয কাজ কেরেছন েসটা সৎ সাংবািদকতার বনধুর পেথ এক যুগানতকাির ঘটনা। ‘পণয  সাংবািদক’ বা ‘Paid Journalist’  এর আেগ আমরা হলুদ সাংবািদকতা বা ‘Yellow Journalism’ ের কথা জানতাম। যুদধেখতেরর খবর যত রঈীন  বরণনা কের িরেপারট করা যােব পাঠক ততই আকরষণ েবাধ করেব। যুেদধর খবর করা িনেয় দুিট সংবাদপতর রিীতমত পরিতেযািগতা করত। েজােসফ পুিলতজার সমপািদত ‘New york world‘  এবং  রযানডলফ হাসরট এর ‘New York Journal‘ এই দুিট সংবাদপতর একসকলুিসভ যুেদধর খবর করার জনয পরসপরেক েটককা িদেত পরকাশ করা হত অেনক িভিততহীন তথয। িমিশেয় েদওয়া হত কলপনার েছাঁওয়া। দুিট পতিরকার সপযািনশ-আেমিরকার যুদধ সংকারনত সিতয-িমেথযর জােল ঠাসবুেনাট খবরেক ১৮৯৭ সােলর পরথম িদেক ‘New York Press’ বহুল পরচিলত  ‘Yellow Journalism‘ টারমিট চালু কের।

পিশচমবেঙগর সুপিণডত, খযািতমান অধযাপক এবং িবিচতর িবষেয়র েলখক পরমথ নাথ িবিশর ( পরনািব) কােছ জানেত চাওয়া হেয়িছল, আপিনেতা অধযাপনাও কেরেছন, সাংবািদকতাও কেরেছন। আপনার অিভঙগতা িক? উততের অধযাপক পরমথনাথ িবিশ বেলিছেলন, ”অধযপনা করেত িগেয় েদেখিছ পিণডেতর মূরখতা, আর সাংবািদকতা করেত িগেয় েদেখিছ মূরেখর পািণডতয।”

 

 

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